Sunday, February 28, 2021

National geographic globalization article

All rights reserved. The signs of global warming are everywhere, and are more complex than just climbing temperatures. What causes climate change? And how does it relate to global warming? Learn about the impact and consequences of climate change and global warming for the environment and our lives.

The planet is warming, from North Pole to South Pole. Sincethe global average surface temperature has increased by more than 1. The heat is melting glaciers and sea iceshifting precipitation patternsand setting animals on the move. Climate change encompasses not only rising average temperatures but also extreme weather events, shifting wildlife populations and habitats, rising seasand a range of other impacts.

All of these changes are emerging as humans continue to add heat-trapping greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. Read next: Is Global Warming Real? Effects of global warming The signs of global warming are everywhere, and are more complex than just climbing temperatures. Scientists already have documented these impacts of climate change:. This includes mountain glaciers, ice sheets covering West Antarctica and Greenland, and Arctic sea ice.

In Montana's Glacier National Park the number of glaciers has declined to fewer than 30 from more than in Much of this melting ice contributes to sea-level rise. Global sea levels are rising 0. Rising temperatures are affecting wildlife and their habitats. As temperatures change, many species are on the move. Some butterflies, foxes, and alpine plants have migrated farther north or to higher, cooler areas. Precipitation rain and snowfall has increased across the globe, on average.

Yet some regions are experiencing more severe droughtincreasing the risk of wildfires, lost crops, and drinking water shortages. Some species—including mosquitoesticksjellyfishand crop pests—are thriving.

Booming populations of bark beetles that feed on spruce and pine trees, for example, have devastated millions of forested acres in the U. Other effects could take place later this century, if warming continues. These include:. Sea levels are expected to rise between 10 and 32 inches 26 and 82 centimeters or higher by the end of the century. Hurricanes and other storms are likely to become stronger. Floods and droughts will become more common.

The Debate Over Globalization

Large parts of the U. Less freshwater will be available, since glaciers store about three-quarters of the world's freshwater.Sustainable seafood. Change in the seafood industry has only been incremental for the past 50 years or so.

Now the sector is on the cusp of thoroughly reimagining products, supply chains, and technologies, much like the communications sector did after the iPhone. These five trends are opening up new markets in the seafood sector, and entrepreneurs around the world are racing to capture a share of these global opportunities.

Intrigued by this shift, we analyzed our extensive data on seafood ventures and found that all the innovative ventures in our pipeline fall into four broad categories linked to the five global trends. The diagram below illustrates how these trends are inspiring innovation in the sustainable seafood sector. New tools that track climate change effects and aid fisheries management. Fishers can also use the new tools to document their catch, so they can meet new traceability mandates and tell consumers the story of their fish.

Gear, processes, and products that make better use of the seafood we catch. Gear upgrades are helping fishers reduce bycatch, habitat destruction, and equipment loss. And the need to better use and manage our limited resources is inspiring creative processing mechanisms and products that reduce waste and improve the value of each fish by creating premium products such as fish jerkies or leather from fish parts that were previously sold for pennies or discarded. Supply chain innovations that tie into globalization and online sales.

Product globalization and the growth of online sales are shifting supply chains in the seafood sector just as they are in other consumer markets. We now expect to get the exact sustainable, fresh, and healthy products we want, delivered to our door quickly and cheaply. Entrepreneurs are responding with direct-to-consumer seafood sales, as well as new logistics and packaging options that cut costs and boost quality. We need aquaculture to help feed a growing, increasingly health-conscious global middle class.

The need for change in seafood has been obvious for quite a while, and these five global trends are not new for most market analysts. What is new is the growth of sustainable seafood innovations that align with these trends. From the Fish 2. October 4, Fish 2.

Effects of Economic Globalization

Courtesy of IQMI 1. Gear, processes, and products that make better use of the seafood we catch Courtesy of Smart Catch Inc. Supply chain innovations that tie into globalization and online sales Product globalization and the growth of online sales are shifting supply chains in the seafood sector just as they are in other consumer markets. Courtesy of Nutri-Tec 4. An Exhilarating Rush of Change Lies Ahead The need for change in seafood has been obvious for quite a while, and these five global trends are not new for most market analysts.

Monica Jain.All rights reserved. People wear costumes for Halloween in Shibuya, Japan, on October 30, The holiday has inspired more young Japanese to dress up as their alter-egos. Halloween is spreading around the globe like a zombie outbreak. From Germany to Japan, young adults are embracing the holiday—particularly its costume parties—as they escape the status quo for a night.

Rogers grew up in Bristol, England, where Halloween was once little noticed. But to the chagrin of some in the United Kingdom, it has grown immensely: Forty-six percent of U. See pictures of England's goth festival, which takes place every October.

The U. But even in places without a Celtic connection, the sugary trappings of Halloween are taking hold. In Germany, for example, Halloween has grown dramatically in the past 25 years, particularly among young people.

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This year, 18 percent of Germans are considering costumes, with about 37 percent of toyear-olds planning to dress up, according to a recent YouGov survey. Filmmakers Vincent UrbanAlex Schiller, and Alex Tank zoomed through Tokyo, Osaka, Hiroshima, and Kyoto and experienced a culture that somehow balances rich tradition with a very futuristic present.

The filmmakers created the content presented, and the opinions expressed are their own, not those of National Geographic Partners. When the Gulf War interrupted Carnival celebrations in Germany, Tschorn decided to help his clients recover lost revenue. Inspired by the annual U. This, in turn, inspired the growth of Halloween in the country.

On the other side of the world, the Japanese celebrate in their own style. Instead of trick-or-treating or decorating their homes, they often indulge in an alter-ego—a popular pastime in a nation where "costume play" was invented.

Dressing in horror or spooky themnes is less common in Japan.

national geographic globalization article

What began at Tokyo Disney Resort has now spilled into the streets. More adult mayhem is on offer in Shibuya, where the crush of costumed revelers has reached such size that police begun closing streets to traffic during the evenings on and around Halloween. See pictures of spooky Halloween costumes of yesteryear.

Inthe Associated Press reported that some 20 million Japanese would observe Halloween, and create between and million dollars in economic impact. Popular as it is, many people are vehemently against Halloween in their countries, whether it be religious objections or fears of cultural imperialism. It may be a bit of both in Germany, where 48 percent of respondents in the YouGov survey said the spooky holiday is a U.

Marking the discovery of a Catholic plot against Parliament inGuy Fawkes Night may have been falling out of favor anyway, Rogers notes. Take a quiz: Halloween, harvests, and honoring the dead. Fire departments don't like bonfires.All rights reserved. Despite decades of progress, the air quality in the United States has started to decline over the past few years, according to data provided in summer by the Environmental Protection Agency.

The agency recorded 15 percent more days with unhealthy air in the country in and compared to the average from to The reasons for the recent decline in air quality remain unclear, says the agency, but may be related to high numbers of wildfiresa warming climate, and increasing human consumption patterns driven by population growth and a strong economy. The long-term outlook also remains unclear, even as politicians debate air pollution standards. Air pollution is a mix of particles and gases that can reach harmful concentrations both outside and indoors.

Its effects can range from higher disease risks to rising temperatures. Soot, smoke, mold, pollen, methane, and carbon dioxide are a just few examples of common pollutants. In the U. Some of those also contribute to indoor air pollutionalong with radon, cigarette smoke, volatile organic compounds VOCsformaldehyde, asbestos, and other substances. Poor air quality kills people. Worldwide, bad outdoor air caused an estimated 4. Indoor smoke is an ongoing health threat to the 3 billion people who cook and heat their homes by burning biomass, kerosene, and coal.

Air pollution has been linked to higher rates of cancer, heart disease, stroke, and respiratory diseases such as asthma. While those effects emerge from long-term exposure, air pollution can also cause short-term problems such as sneezing and coughing, eye irritation, headaches, and dizziness. Particulate matter smaller than 10 micrometers classified as PM 10 and the even smaller PM 2. Air pollutants cause less-direct health effects when they contribute to climate change.

Heat waves, extreme weather, food supply disruptions, and other effects related to increased greenhouse gases can have negative impacts on human health. The U.

national geographic globalization article

Fourth National Climate Assessment released in noted, for example, that a changing climate "could expose more people in North America to ticks that carry Lyme disease and mosquitoes that transmit viruses such as West Nile, chikungunya, dengue, and Zika. Though many living things emit carbon dioxide when they breathe, the gas is widely considered to be a pollutant when associated with cars, planes, power plants, and other human activities that involve the burning of fossil fuels such as gasoline and natural gas.

That's because carbon dioxide is the most common of the greenhouse gases, which trap heat in the atmosphere and contribute to climate change. Humans have pumped enough carbon dioxide into the atmosphere over the past years to raise its levels higher than they have been for hundreds of thousands of years.

Other greenhouse gases include methane —which comes from such sources as landfills, the natural gas industry, and gas emitted by livestock —and chlorofluorocarbons CFCswhich were used in refrigerants and aerosol propellants until they were banned in the late s because of their deteriorating effect on Earth's ozone layer.

Another pollutant associated with climate change is sulfur dioxide, a component of smog.

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Sulfur dioxide and closely related chemicals are known primarily as a cause of acid rain. But they also reflect light when released in the atmosphere, which keeps sunlight out and creates a cooling effect. Volcanic eruptions can spew massive amounts of sulfur dioxide into the atmosphere, sometimes causing cooling that lasts for years.

In fact, volcanoes used to be the main source of atmospheric sulfur dioxide; today, people are.All rights reserved. Is it also a looming tragedy for rich ones? Until recently all those poor people elsewhere were no threat to rich countries. But today, poor remote countries are able to create problems for rich ones, and the reasons can be summed up in a word: globalization. As a result of the increased connections among all parts of the world, people in developing countries know more about differences in living standards, and many of them can now travel to rich countries.

Globalization has made it untenable for such dramatic inequalities between high and low living standards to persist. I see evidence of that everywhere, but three examples stand out. As incomes rise in poorer nations, consumption will rise also, thus depleting more natural resources to achieve a more affluent lifestyle. Per capita oil-consumption rates in the U. The first is health. The spread of disease is an unintended result of globalization.


Feared diseases now get carried to rich countries by travelers from poor countries where the diseases are endemic and public health measures are weak. For instance, inwhen an Argentine airliner picked up cholera-infected food in Peru and flew nonstop to Los Angeles, some passengers then flew on to Seattle, Alaska, and Tokyo, resulting in a trail of cholera cases from California to Japan.

Second: terrorism. Religious fundamentalism and individual psychopathology play essential roles. Every country has its crazy, angry individuals driven to kill; poor countries have no monopoly on them.

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But in poor countries today, people are barraged with media visions of lifestyles that are available elsewhere in the world and unavailable to them. In anger and desperation, some become terrorists themselves; others tolerate or support terrorists. Americans now live under constant threat of global terrorism.

I predict that there will be more terrorist attacks against the United States, Europe, Japan, and Australia—as long as big differences in living standards persist. The third result when inequality and globalization collide is that people with spartan lifestyles want affluent ones.

In most developing countries, increasing living standards is a top policy goal. Instead they seek more affluent lifestyles now by immigrating to developed countries, with or without visas: especially to western Europe, the United States, and Australia; and especially from Africa, Asia, and Latin America.

Just do the math.By Ross A. Virginia and Michael Sfraga Pick up any major news publication and it will likely include an article about the rapid, profound and accelerating changes we see in the Arctic. The influence of melting glaciers, declining sea ice and rising sea levels now reach beyond the Arctic and are recognized as global issues Pick up any major news publication and it will likely include an article about the rapid, profound and accelerating changes we see in the Arctic.

The influence of melting glaciers, declining sea ice and rising sea levels now reach beyond the Arctic and are recognized as global issues requiring international action. The human dimension, though often underreported, also needs urgent attention.

Northern societies are on the frontline of climate change and are pressed to respond to the dual forces of environmental change and globalization. Even though the indigenous peoples of the Arctic have a long history of resilience when confronted with change, the pace today is unprecedented.

We see opportunities to better meet the science and policy needs of Arctic peoples by closing gaps in international investments in infrastructure for applied research and education.

We believe the White House Arctic Science Ministerial on September 28, the first event of its kind, is a special opportunity to bring attention to and focus on the ever-evolving challenges and opportunities facing citizens of the North and throughout the world. Many Arctic researchers work closely with communities on specific questions arising from their specialized area of expertise. Institutions are well equipped to support this kind of work.

However, we become pressed when the research must span multiple fields of expertise, involve many nations and requires specialized equipment and expensive logistical support. How then might the Arctic Science Ministerial advance international science and policy under their four themes? Perhaps most of all by demonstrating a commitment to value and foster the growth of international collaborative networks and their infrastructure needs, especially those grounded in a philosophy where researchers partner with Arctic communities.

Many Arctic science organizations and funders adhere to the ethical responsibilities of scientists to collaborate openly with communities, pose research questions relevant to local needs, and share widely their research findings with the public. As more non-Arctic nations establish research programs in the region, it becomes imperative to identify research values and protocols that respect the rights and aspirations of Arctic residents.

The ministerial should set a climate of cooperation and expectation where new Arctic partners, including observer nations in the Arctic Council, commit to significant investments in shared facilities, student and researcher exchange and networking, and data sharing; all under high standards for the ethical conduct of research with indigenous peoples. We are fortunate to be a part of two initiatives that encourage international and cross-cutting research and are useful models for consideration by the ministerial.

The Fulbright Arctic Initiativea new international applied research program, and the University of the Arctic UArctic and its Institute for Arctic Policy operate on the premise that the application of innovative collaborative research models and the growth of educational networks are essential to create the problem solving capacity required to address Arctic issues and policy challenges.


The Fulbright Arctic Initiativesponsored by the U. At a larger scale, UArctic has grown from a handful of institutions in to over members today. This virtual university facilitates collaborative research across disciplines through a system of more than 30 Thematic Networks covering topics such as permafrost, digital media, fisheries, engineering, geopolitics and teacher education. The value of new investment in infrastructure support for building research networks will be made clear in October during the Fulbright Arctic Week in Washington, D.

We will demonstrate how small teams of Fulbright Arctic scholars can formulate policy relevant research and reach important findings and recommendations in a relative short time 18 months. This is made possible by infrastructure investments in research coordination, team building and group communication, public outreach and access to policy makers provided through Fulbright and the combined research networks of the scholars.

If we want to build new educational and research centers and networks in the Arctic and apply local traditional knowledge to solving problems of Arctic change, we need international funding — no one nation can make this happen on its own. Yet current funding programs are rarely able to support the costs of establishing productive relationships between researchers and communities.

Making meaningful collaborations takes time, but are made difficult by short funding cycles and the pressure for quick results. The success of UArctic as a virtual university and research network is well recognized by the Arctic community and internationally by its status as an observer in the Arctic Council. The long-term funding model for this path-breaking effort is perhaps less clear.

national geographic globalization article

We must make progress to focus and coordinate international investments in sustaining innovative research organizations and networks. We are encouraged. Note: This article originally appeared on Arctic Deeply. For important news about circumpolar Arctic issues, you can sign up to the Arctic Deeply email list. September 21, Nuuk, the capital of Greenland How then might the Arctic Science Ministerial advance international science and policy under their four themes?

Addressing Arctic science challenges Strengthening observation and data sharing networks Applying science to build regional resilience Using science as a vehicle to improve education and citizen empowerment Perhaps most of all by demonstrating a commitment to value and foster the growth of international collaborative networks and their infrastructure needs, especially those grounded in a philosophy where researchers partner with Arctic communities.All rights reserved.

Its spread was fueled by the preesnce of many dead, super dry trees; climate change contributed to both their death and their dryness. Climate change has inexorably stacked the deck in favor of bigger and more intense fires across the American West over the past few decades, science has incontrovertibly shown.

Increasing heat, changing rain and snow patterns, shifts in plant communities, and other climate-related changes have vastly increased the likelihood that fires will start more often and burn more intensely and widely than they have in the past. The scale and intensity of the wildfires burning across the western U. More than five million acres have already burned this year—and much more may be yet to come.

Climate change exacerbates the factors that create perfect fire conditions.

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Noah Diffenbaugh, a climate scientist at Stanford University, makes a baseball analogy to describe increase in risk. The home run is the proximal cause of the event. But people being on base matters," he says, and global warming is putting people on base. Other factors also hike fire risk, like forest management decisions that have allowed for the buildup of vast amounts of vegetation that can quickly turn into fuel, as well as more problematic issues like the slow creep of houses and other infrastructure into risky areas.

But for fires near that so-called wildland-urban interface, as well as more remote, forest-centered burns, climate change has significantly heightened the baseline risks.

In some ways, fire is simple. It takes three components: the right weather and climate conditions, plenty of burnable fuel, and a spark. Climate change has affected the first two components and in some cases, the third in clear, measurable ways that have become increasingly obvious over the past few decades.

The clearest connection is with warming air temperatures. The planet has heated up nearly continuously since the start of the Industrial Revolution in the late s, when humans started burning massive quantities of fossil fuels, releasing carbon dioxide that traps excess heat in the atmosphere. Since then, global average temperatures have ticked up roughly 1.

Warming has accelerated since the s to just under 0. That might not seem like very much warming, but just a little can go a long way. The hotter and drier the air, the more it sucks up, and the amount of water it can hold increases exponentially as the temperature rises; small increases in the air's heat can mean big increases in the intensity with which it pulls out water.

Scientists can measure this "vapor pressure deficit"—the difference between how much water the air holds and how much it could hold. If that deficit is cranked up for a long time, soils and vegetation will parch. A brief heat spell will dry out the smallish stuff or the already dead stuff—and maybe even some of the bigger tinder. Intense, record-breaking heat waves like the ones that encompassed the West during August and early September likely caused major crisping of burnable material, as the regional vapor pressure deficit and associated drought climbed to record levels.


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